Mechanisms of deliberation during preferential choice: Perspectives from computational modeling and individual differences.

Computational models of decision making typically assume as people deliberate between options they mentally simulate outcomes from each one and integrate valuations of these outcomes to form a preference. In two studies, we investigated this deliberation process using a task where participants make a series of decisions between a certain and an uncertain option, which were shown as dynamic visual samples that represented possible payoffs. We developed and validated a method of reverse correlational analysis for the task that measures how this time-varying signal was used to make a choice. The first study used this method to examine how information processing during deliberation differed from a perceptual analog of the task. We found that participants were less sensitive to each sample of information during preferential choice. In a second study, we investigated how these different measures of deliberation were related to impulsivity and drug and alcohol use. We found that although properties of the deliberation process were not related to impulsivity, some aspects of the process may be related to substance use. In particular, alcohol abuse was related to diminished sensitivity to the payoff information and drug use was related to how the initial starting point of evidence accumulation. We synthesized our results with a rank-dependent sequential sampling model which suggests that participants allocated more attentional weight to larger potential payoffs during preferential choice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)