Website Last Updated

Neuroscientist Sources

Name

Lifetime

Nationality

Awards or eponymous

Larry
Abbott

1950–

United
States

Mathematical Neuroscience Prize
2013.[1]

Susan Ackerman

 

United
States

 

Albert Wojciech Adamkiewicz

1850–1921

Poland

Artery of Adamkiewicz

Edgar Douglas Adrian

1889–1977

United
Kingdom

Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine
– 1932.[2]

Patrick Aebischer

1954–

Switzerland

 

George Aghajanian

1932–

Lebanon

 

Huda Akil

1945–

Syria

 

Alcmaeon of Croton

c.510
BCE

Italy

 

Giovanni
Aldini

1762–1834

Italy

 

Richard W. Aldrich

 

United
States

 

John
Allman

 

United
States

 

Alois
Alzheimer

1864–1915

Germany

Alzheimer’s disease

David Amaral

1950–

United
States

 

Katrin
Amunts

 

Germany

 

Per
Andersen

1930–2020

Norway

 

Richard A. Andersen

1950–

United
States

 

David J. Anderson

1956–

United
States

 

Pyotr
Anokhin

1898–1974

Russia

 

Julius Caesar Aranzi

1529/1530–1589

Italy

 

Silvia
Arber

1968–

Switzerland

W. Alden Spencer Award-2018

Clay
Armstrong

1934–

United
States

 

Friedrich
Arnold

1803–1890

Germany

Arnold’s
nerve

Leopold
Auerbach

1828–1897

Germany

Auerbach’s plexus

Richard
Axel

1946–

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2004.[3]

Julius
Axelrod

1912–2004

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1970.[4]

Paul
Bach-y-Rita

1934–2006

United
States

 

Herman S. Bachelard

1929–2006

United
Kingdom

 

Jules
Baillarger

1809–1890

France

Bands of Baillarger

Róbert Bárány

1876–1936

Austria-Hungary

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1914.[5]

Cornelia Bargmann

1961–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2012.,[6]
Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences – 2013.[7]

Ben Barres

1954–2017

United
States

Ralph W. Gerard Prize in
Neuroscience
-2016

Danielle
Bassett

1981–

United
States

 

Adolf Beck

1863–1942

Poland

 

Georg von Békésy

1899–1972

Hungary

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1961.[8]

Vladimir Bekhterev

1857–1927

Russia

Bekhterev’s nucleus, Bekhterev–Mendel reflex

Sir
Charles Bell

1774–1842

United
Kingdom

Bell’s
palsy
, Bell’s phenomenon, Bell–Magendie law

Alim Louis Benabid

1942–

France

Breakthrough
Prize in Life Sciences – 2015.[9]

April A. Benasich

 

 

 

Seymour
Benzer

1921–2007

United
States

 

Heather A. Berlin

 

United
States

 

Julius
Bernstein

1839–1917

Germany

Bernstein Network

Vladimir
Betz

1834–1894

Ukrainian

Betz cell

Albert von Bezold

1836–1868

Germany

Bezold–Jarisch reflex

Mayim
Bialik

1975–

United
States

 

Elisabeth
Binder

 

Austria

 

Timothy
Bliss

1940–

United
Kingdom

The
Brain Prize – 2016.[10]

Ned Block

1942–

United
States

 

Hal
Blumenfeld

1962–

United
States

 

Herman
Boerhaave

1668–1738

Netherlands

 

Nancy
Bonini

1959–

United
States

 

Azad Bonni

1963–

Canada
and United States

 

Daniel
Bovet

1907–1992

Switzerland

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1957.[11]

Edward
Boyden

1979–

United
States

Breakthrough
Prize in Life Sciences – 2016.,[12]
The Brain Prize – 2013.[13]

Heiko
Braak

1937–

Germany

Braak
staging

Joseph
V. Brady

1922–2011

United
States

 

Josef
Breuer

1842–1925

Austria

Hering–Breuer reflex

Paul Broca

1824–1880

France

Broca’s
area
, Broca’s aphasia

Alf Brodal

1910–1988

Norway

 

Korbinian Brodmann

1868–1918

Germany

Brodmann
area

Thomas Graham Brown

1882–1965

United
Kingdom

 

Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard

1817–1894

Mauritian

Brown-Séquard syndrome

Nathaniel A. Buchwald

1924–2006

United
States

 

Linda
B. Buck

1947–

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2004.[14]

Paul Bucy

1904–1992

United
States

Klüver–Bucy syndrome

Ludwig Julius Budge

1811–1888

Germany

Budge’s center

György Buzsáki

1949–

Hungary

The
Brain Prize – 2011.[15]

John
T. Cacioppo

1951–2018

United
States

 

Leopoldo Caldani

1725–1813

Italy

 

Donald
Calne

1936–

Canada

 

Matteo
Carandini

1967–

Italy
– United States

 

Arvid
Carlsson

1923–2018

Sweden

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2000.[16]

Ben Carson

1951–

United
States

 

C.
Sue Carter

 

United
States

 

Richard
Caton

1842–1926

United
Kingdom

 

Ugo
Cerletti

1877–1963

Italy

 

Carlos Chagas Filho

1910–2000

Brazil

 

Jean-Pierre Changeux

1936–

France

 

Jean-Martin Charcot

1825–1893

France

Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, Charcot–Wilbrand syndrome, Charcot–Bouchard aneurysms, Charcot’s
triad

Alon Chen

1970–

Israel

11th
President of the Weizmann Institute of Science

Daniel
Choquet

1962–

France

 

Jacob Augustus Lockhart Clarke

1817–1880

United
Kingdom

nucleus dorsalis of Clarke

Don
W. Cleveland

1950–

United
States

Breakthrough
Prize in Life Sciences – 2018.[17]

Stanley Cohen

1922–2020

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1986.[18]

Graham Collingridge

1955–

United
Kingdom

The
Brain Prize – 2016.[19]

Ed Connor

1955–

United
States

 

Alexander
Cools

1941–2013

Netherlands

 

Jules
Cotard

1840–1889

France

Cotard
delusion

Rodney
Cotterill

1933–2007

United
Kingdom

 

S.
Allen Counter

1944–2017

United
States

 

Miguel Rolando Covian

1913–1992

Argentina
– Brazil

 

Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt

1885–1964

Germany

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

Francis
Crick

1916–2004

United
Kingdom

 

Wim Crusio

1954–

Netherlands

 

Harvey
Cushing

1869–1939

United
States

Cushing
reflex
, Cushing’s disease

Johann Nepomuk Czermak

1828–1873

Austria-Germany

Czermak-Hering test

Annica Dahlström

1941–

Sweden

 

Henry Hallett Dale

1875–1968

United
Kingdom

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1936.,[20]
Dale’s principle

John
Call Dalton

1825–1889

United
States

 

Antonio
Damasio

1944–

Portugal
– United States

Golden
Brain Award – 1995.[21]

Richard
Davidson

1951–

United
States

 

Peter
Dayan

1965–

United
Kingdom

The
Brain Prize – 2017.[22]

Duchenne de Boulogne

1806–1875

France

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy,
Duchenne-Erb
paralysis

Yves
De Koninck

1964–

United
States

 

Bart
De Strooper

 

Belgium

The
Brain Prize – 2018.[23]

Jean
Decety

1960–

France
– United States

 

Kay
de Villiers

1928–2018

South
Africa

Honorary
President of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies.[24]

Stanislas Dehaene

1965–

France

The
Brain Prize – 2014.[25]

Karl
Deisseroth

1971–

United
States

Breakthrough
Prize in Life Sciences – 2016.,[26]
The Brain Prize – 2013.,[27]
Golden Brain Award – 2009.[28]

Otto
Deiters

1834–1863

Germany

 

Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke

1859–1927

United
States-France

Klumpke paralysis

Mahlon
DeLong

1938–

United
States

Breakthrough
Prize in Life Sciences – 2014.[29]

Winfried
Denk

1957–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2012.,[30]
The Brain Prize – 2015.[31]

René Descartes

1596–1650

France

 

Robert
Desimone

 

 

Golden
Brain Award – 1994.[32]

Richard
Deth

1945–

 

 

Adele
Diamond

 

United
States

 

Marian
Diamond

1926–2017

United
States

 

Alexandre
Dogiel

1852–1922

Lithuania

Dogiel
cells

Merlin
Donald

1939–

Canada

 

Emil du Bois-Reymond

1818–1896

Germany

 

Yadin
Dudai

1944–

Israel

 

Catherine
Dulac

1963–

France

Ralph
W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience-2019

Lillian
Dyck

1945–

Canada

 

David
Eagleman

1971–

United
States

 

John Carew Eccles

1903–1997

Australia

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1963.[33]

Constantin von Economo

1876–1931

Austria

von
Economo neurons

Gerald
Edelman

1929–2014

United
States

 

Ludwig
Edinger

1855–1918

Germany

Edinger–Westphal nucleus

Howard Eichenbaum

1947–2017

United
States

 

George Bard Ermentrout

1954–

United
States

Mathematical
Neuroscience Prize – 2015.[34]

Andreas
K. Engel

1961–

Germany

 

Roger
M. Enoka

1949–

New
Zealand

 

Erasistratus

c.304–c.250
BCE

Greece

 

Joseph
Erlanger

1874–1965

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1944.[35]

Ulf
von Euler

1905–1983

Sweden

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1970.[36]

Bartolomeo Eustachi

1500/1514–1574

Italy

Eustachian
tube

Edward
Evarts

1926–1985

United
States

 

Bengt
Falck

1927–

Sweden

Falck-Hillarp method of
fluorescence

James
Fallon

1947–

United
States

 

Gabriele Falloppio

1523–1562

Italy

Aquæductus
Fallopii

Paul Fatt

1924–2014

United
Kingdom

 

Richard
Faull

1945–

New
Zealand

 

Gustav
Fechner

1801–1887

Germany

Weber–Fechner law

Michale
Fee

1964–

United
States

 

Eva
Feldman

 

United
States

 

Guoping
Feng

 

China

 

Jean
Fernel

1497–1558

France

 

David
Ferrier

1843–1928

United
Kingdom

 

Robert Fettiplace

1946–

United
Kingdom

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2018.[37]

Edward
Flatau

1868–1932

Poland

 

Paul
Flechsig

1847–1929

Germany

Flechig-Meyer’s
loop
, Flechsig’s fasciculus

Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow

1846–1891

Austria

 

Jean Pierre Flourens

1794–1867

France

 

Otfrid
Foerster

1873–1941

Germany

 

Auguste-Henri Forel

1848–1931

Switzerland

Fields
of Forel

Walter Jackson Freeman III

1927–2016

United
States

 

Allan
H. Frey

1935–

 

 

Karl
J. Friston

1959–

United
Kingdom

Golden
Brain Award – 2003.[38]

Chris
Frith

1942–

United
Kingdom

 

Gennosuke
Fuse

1880–1946

Japan

Kölliker-Fuse nucleus

Fred "Rusty"
Gage

1950–

 

 

Robert
Galambos

1914–2010

United
States

 

Galen

129–c. 200/c. 216

Greek

Vein of Galen

Franz Joseph Gall

1758–1828

Germany

 

Luigi
Galvani

1737–1798

Italy

Galvanism,
Galvanic skin response, Galvanic vestibular stimulation

William Francis Ganong, Jr.

1924–2007

United
States

 

Herbert Spencer Gasser

1888–1963

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1944.[39]
Gasser’s ganglion

Henri
Gastaut

1915–1995

France

Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, Idiopathic
childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut

Michael Gazzaniga

1939–

United
States

 

Francesco Gennari

1750–1797

Italy

Line
of Gennari

Ralph
W. Gerard

1900–1974

United
States

 

Robert
Gerlai

1960–

Hungary

 

Anirvan
Ghosh

1964–

United
States

 

Alfred
G. Gilman

1941–2015

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1994.[40]

Donald
A. Glaser

1926–2013

United
States

 

Francis
Glisson

1599–1677

United
Kingdom

 

Michel
Goedert

 

Luxembourg-United
Kingdom

The
Brain Prize – 2018.[41]

David
E. Goldman

1910–1998

United
States

Goldman
equation
, GHK flux equation

Camillo
Golgi

1843–1926

Italy

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1906.[42]
Golgi tendon organ, Golgi’s
method
, Golgi cell, Golgi I, Golgi II

Elizabeth Gould

1962–

United
States

 

Ragnar
Granit

1900–1991

Finland

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1967.[43]

Ann
Graybiel

1942–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2012.[44]

Maria Grazia Spillantini

 

Italy

 

Michael E. Greenberg

1954–

United
States

Ralph
W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience -2019

Susan
Greenfield

1950–

United
Kingdom

 

Paul
Greengard

1925–2019

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2000.[45]

Kalanit Grill-Spector

 

United
States

 

Sten
Grillner

1941–

Sweden

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2008.[46]

Bernhard von Gudden

1950–

Germany

 

Roger
Guillemin

1924–

France

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1977.[47]

Christian
Haass

1960–

Germany

The
Brain Prize – 2018.[48]

Vladimir Hachinski

1941–

Ukrainian

 

Marshall Hall

1790–1857

United
Kingdom

 

Albrecht von Haller

1708–1777

Switzerland

Hallerian physiology

Sam Harris

1967–

United
States

 

Haldan Keffer Hartline

1903–1983

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1967.[49]

Jeffrey
C. Hall

1945–

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2017.[50]

John Hardy

1954–

 

Breakthrough
Prize in Life Sciences – 2016.[51]
The Brain Prize – 2018.[52]

Demis
Hassabis

1976–

United
Kingdom

 

Rolf
Hassler

1914–1984

Germany

 

Donald Olding Hebb

1904–1985

Canada

Hebbian
theory

Peter
Hegemann

1954–

Germany

The
Brain Prize – 2013.[53]

Lennart
Heimer

1930–2007

Switzerland

 

Martin Heisenberg

1940–

Germany

 

Hermann von Helmholtz

1821–1894

Germany

Helmholtz–Kohlrausch effect

Suzana Herculano-Houzel

1972–

Brazil

 

Ewald
Hering

1834–1918

Germany

Hering–Hillebrand deviation, Hering’s law of visual direction,
Hering’s law of equal innervation,
Hering–Breuer reflex

Herophilos

c.335–c.280
BCE

Greece

 

Percy
Herring

1872–1967

United
Kingdom

Herring
bodies

Richard L. Heschl

1824–1881

Austria

Heschl’s gyrus

Walter Rudolf Hess

1881–1973

Switzerland

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1949.[54]

Corneille Heymans

1892–1968

Belgium

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1938.[55]

Okihide
Hikosaka

1948–

Japan

Golden Brain Award – 2015

Nils-Åke Hillarp

1916–1965

Sweden

Falck-Hillarp method of
fluorescence

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

1914–1998

United
Kingdom

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1963.[56]
Hodgkin–Huxley model, GHK flux equation, Hodgkin
cycle

Oleh Hornykiewicz

1926–

Austria

 

Victor
Horsley

1857–1916

United
Kingdom

 

David
H. Hubel

1926–2013

Canada

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1981.[57]

A. James Hudspeth

1945–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2018.[58]

John Hughes

1942–

United
Kingdom

 

Ashiq
Hussain

 

Pakistani

 

Andrew
Huxley

1917–2012

United
Kingdom

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1963.[59]
Hodgkin–Huxley model

Laurent
Itti

1970–

France

 

Ivan
Izquierdo

1937–

Argentina
and Brazil

 

Louis Jacobsohn-Lask

1863–1941

Germany

Bekhterev–Jacobsohn reflex

John Hughlings Jackson

1835–1911

United
Kingdom

Jacksonian
seizure

Herbert
Jasper

1906–1999

Canada

 

Marc
Jeannerod

1935–2011

France

 

Thomas
Jessell

1951–2019

United
Kingdom

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2008.[60]
Ralph W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience-2016

Amishi Jha

 

 

 

Ted Jones

1939–2011

New
Zealand

 

Michel
Jouvet

1925–2017

France

 

Béla
Julesz

1928–2003

Hungary

 

David
Julius

1955–

United
States

Breakthrough
Prize in Life Sciences – 2019.[61]

Marcel
Just

 

 

 

Jon Kaas

 

 

 

Eric
R. Kandel

1929–

Austria-United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2000.[62]

Nancy
Kanwisher

1958–

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 2007.[63]

George
Karpati

1934–2009

Canada

 

Bernard
Katz

1911–2003

Germany

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1970.,[64]
GHK flux equation

Lawrence
C. Katz

1956–2005

United
States

 

JacSue
Kehoe

1935–

United
States

 

J. A. Scott Kelso

1947–

Ireland

 

James
S. Ketchum

1931–2020

United
States

 

Seymour
S. Kety

1915–2000

United
States

 

Heinrich Klüver

1897–1979

United
States

Klüver–Bucy syndrome

Christof
Koch

1956–

Germany
– United States

 

Albert von Kölliker

1817–1905

Switzerland

Kölliker-Fuse nucleus

Masakazu
Konishi

1933–

Japan

 

Jerzy
Konorski

1903–1973

Poland

 

George
Koob

1947–

 

 

Nancy
Kopell

1942–

United
States

Mathematical
Neuroscience Prize – 2015.[65]

Georg N. Koskinas

1885–1975

Greece

 

Emil
Kraepelin

1856–1926

Germany

Kraepelinian dichotomy

Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein

1723–1795

Germany

 

Stephen
Kuffler

1913–1980

Hungary

 

Story
Landis

 

United
States

Ralph
W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience-2015

John Newport Langley

1852–1925

United
Kingdom

 

Louis
Lapicque

1866–1952

France

 

Marcelle Lapicque

1873–1962

France

 

Steven
Laureys

1968–

Belgium

 

Jan Lauwereyns

1969–

Belgium

 

Denis
Le Bihan

1957–

France

 

Aristides Leão

1914–1993

Brazil

 

Joseph
LeDoux

1949–

United
States

 

César Julien Jean Legallois

1770–1814

France

 

Lars
Leksell

1907–1986

Sweden

 

Jerome
Lettvin

1920–2011

United
States

 

Simon
LeVay

1943–

United
Kingdom-United States

 

Rita Levi-Montalcini

1909–2012

Italy

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1986.[66]

Daniel
Levitin

1957–

United
States – Canada

 

John
C. Lilly

1915–2001

United
States

 

Charles
Limb

 

United
States

 

Christiane Linster

1962–

Luxembourg

 

Heinrich Lissauer

1861–1891

Poland

Lissauer’s tract

Rodolfo Llinás

1934–

Colombia
– United States

Llinás’
law
, Ralph W. Gerard Prize in
Neuroscience
-2018

Otto Loewi

1873–1961

Germany

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1936.[67]

Nikos
Logothetis

1950–

Greece

Golden
Brain Award – 1999.[68]

Terje
Lømo

1935–

Norway

 

Rafael Lorente de Nó

1902–1990

Spain

 

Paul Loye

1861–1890

France

 

Liliana
Lubinska

1904–1990

Poland

 

Keith Lucas

1879–1916

United
Kingdom

 

Jules Bernard Luys

1828–1897

France

Luys’ body

William
Macewen

1848–1924

United
Kingdom

 

Roderick MacKinnon

1956–

United
States

Nobel Prize in Chemistry – 2003.[69]

François Magendie

1783–1855

France

Foramen of Magendie

Horace Winchell Magoun

1907–1991

 

 

Eleanor
Maguire

1970–

Ireland

 

Misha
Mahowald

1963–1996

United
States

 

Paolo
Mantegazza

1831–1910

Italy

 

Eve Marder

1948–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2016.[70]

Henry
Markram

1962–

South
Africa

 

David Marr

1945–1980

United
Kingdom

 

C.
David Marsden

1938–1998

United
Kingdom

 

Niccolò
Massa

1485–1569

Italy

 

Carlo
Matteucci

1811–1868

Italy

 

Humberto Maturana

1928–

Chile

 

Herbert
Mayo

1796–1852

United
Kingdom

 

Mervyn
Maze

 

South
Africa

 

James McClelland

1948–

United
States

 

James V. McConnell

1925–1990

United
States

 

Warren
McCulloch

1898–1969

United
States

McCulloch–Pitts neuron

Bruce
McEwen

1938–2020

United
States

 

James
McGaugh

1931–

United
States

 

Ladislas J. Meduna

1896–1964

Hungary

 

H. Houston Merritt

1902–1979

United
States

 

Michael Merzenich

1942–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2016.[71]

Franz
Mesmer

1734–1815

Germany

Mesmerism

Adolf Meyer

1866–1950

Switzerland

Meyer’s
loop

Theodor
Meynert

1833–1892

Germany

Nucleus
basalis of Meynert
, substantia innominata of Meynert

Gero Miesenböck

1965–

Austria

The
Brain Prize – 2013.[72]

Earl
K. Miller

1962–

United
States

Goldman-Rakic
Prize for Outstanding Achievement in Cognitive Neuroscience – 2016[73]
George A. Miller Prize in Cognitive Neuroscience – 2019[74]

Brenda
Milner

1918–

United
Kingdom-Canada

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2014.[75]

Peter
Milner

1919–2018

United
Kingdom-Canada

 

Mondino
de Luzzi

1270–1326

Italy

 

Egas Moniz

1874–1955

Portugal

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1949.,[76]
Moniz
sign

Alexander Monro

1733–1817

United
Kingdom

Foramina of Monro

Read
Montague

1960–

United
States

 

Richard G. Morris

1948–

United
Kingdom

The
Brain Prize – 2016.[77]

Giuseppe
Moruzzi

1910–1986

Italy

 

Edvard
Moser

1962–

Norway

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2014.[78]

May-Britt
Moser

1963–

Norway

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2014.[79]

Vernon Mountcastle

1918–2015

United
States

 

Anthony Movshon

1950–

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 2013.[80]

Heinrich Müller

1820–1864

Germany

Muller
glia

Johannes Peter Müller

1801–1858

Germany

 

Ken
Nakayama

 

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 2017.[81]

Jeremy
Nathans

1958–

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 1989.[82]

Walle
Nauta

1916–1994

Dutch
East Indies

 

Erwin
Neher

1944–

Germany

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1991.[83]

Charles A. Nelson III

 

United
States

 

Helen
Neville

1946-2018

Canada

 

William
Newsome

1952–

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 1992.[84]

John Graham Nicholls

1929–

United
Kingdom-Switzerland

 

Miguel
Nicolelis

1961–

Brazil

 

Franz
Nissl

1860–1919

Germany

Nissl body, Nissl granules,
Nissl
method

Akinori
Noma

 

Japan

 

Fernando Nottebohm

1940–

Argentina

 

John O’Keefe

1939–

United
States – United Kingdom

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2014.,[85]
Kavli prize in Neuroscience – 2014.[86]

Heinrich Obersteiner

1847–1922

Austria

Redlich–Obersteiner’s zone

Seiji
Ogawa

1934–

Japan

 

Melly
Oitzl

1955–

Austria

 

Jaak
Panksepp

1943–2017

Estonia-United
States

 

James Papez

1883–1958

United
States

Papez
circuit

Alvaro Pascual-Leone

1961–

Spain

 

Paul Patterson

1943–2014

United
States

 

Steven
M. Paul

 

United
States

 

Ivan
Pavlov

1849–1936

Russia

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1904.[87]
Pavlovian conditioning

Wilder
Penfield

1891–1976

United
States – Canada

Penfield’s maps

Edward
Perl

1926–2014

United
States

 

David
Perrett

1954–

 

Golden
Brain Award – 2001.[88]

Candace
Pert

1946–2013

United
States

 

Christine
Petit

1948–

France

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2018.[89]
The Brain Prize – 2012.[90]

Eduard Pflüger

1829–1910

Germany

 

Archangelo Piccolomini

1525-1586

Italy

 

Walter
Pitts

1923–1969

United
States

McCulloch–Pitts neuron

Tomaso
Poggio

1947–

Italy

 

Vladimir Pravdich-Neminsky

1879–1952

Russia

 

Karl
Pribram

1919–2015

Austria

 

Stanley B. Prusiner

1942–

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1997.[91]

Jan Evangelista Purkyně

1787–1869

Czech
Republic

Purkinje
effect
, Purkinje cell, Purkinje
fibre
, Purkinje images

Dale
Purves

1938–

United
States

 

Marcus
Raichle

1937–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2014.[92]

Pasko
Rakic

1933–

Kingdom
of Yugoslavia – United States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2008.[93]

Patricia Goldman Rakic

1937–2003

United
States

 

Wilfrid
Rall

1922–2018

United
States

 

Vilayanur S. Ramachandran

1951–

India
– United States

 

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

1852–1934

Spain

Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine
– 1906.[42]
Cajal–Retzius cell, Cajal body,
Interstitial cell of Cajal

Louis-Antoine Ranvier

1835–1922

France

Node
of Ranvier

Geraint
Rees

1967–

United
Kingdom

 

Johann Christian Reil

1759–1813

Germany

Islands
of Reil

Ernst
Reissner

1824–1878

Germany

Reissner’s membrane

Thomas Reh

 

United
States

 

Robert
Remak

1815–1865

Poland-Germany

 

Gustaf
Retzius

1842–1919

Sweden

Cajal–Retzius cell

Bror Rexed

1914–2002

Sweden

Rexed
laminae

David Rioch

1900–1985

India
– United States

 

Giacomo Rizzolatti

1937–

Italy

The
Brain Prize – 2014.[94]

Trevor
Robbins

1949–

United
Kingdom

The
Brain Prize – 2014.[95]

Nayef
Al-Rodhan

1959–

Saudi
Arabia

 

Gonzalo Rodríguez Lafora

1886–1971

Spain

Lafora
disease and Lafora bodies

Luigi
Rolando

1773–1831

Italy

Rolandic area, substantia gelatinosa of Rolando,
Fissure
of Rolando
, Rolandic epilepsy

Edmund
Rolls

 

 

 

Michael
Rosbash

1944–

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2017.[96]

Steven
Rose

1938–

United
Kingdom

 

James
Rothman

1950–

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2013.,[97]
Kavli prize in Neuroscience – 2010.[98]

Bernardo Sabatini

1969-

United
States

 

Renato M. E. Sabbatini

1947–

Brazil

 

Oliver
Sacks

1933–2015

United
Kingdom

 

Manfred
Sakel

1900–1957

Austria

 

Bert
Sakmann

1942–

Germany

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1991.[99]

Anders
Sandberg

1972–

Sweden

 

Robert
Sapolsky

1957–

United
States

 

Antonio
Scarpa

1752–1832

Italy

Scarpa’s
fluid
, Foramina of Scarpa, Scarpa’s ganglion

Károly Schaffer

1864–1939

Hungary

Schaffer collateral

Andrew
Schally

1924–

France

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1977.[100]

Richard
Scheller

1953–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2010.[101]

Daniela
Schiller

1972–

Israel

 

Francis O. Schmitt

1903–1995

United
States

 

Erich Schröger

1958–

Germany

 

Theodor
Schwann

1810–1882

Germany

Schwann
cell

Eric
L. Schwartz

1947–

 

 

Terrence J. Sejnowski

1947–

United
States

 

Sebastian
Seung

 

Korea-United
States

 

Michael
Shadlen

1959–

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 2012.[102]

Maryam
M. Shanechi

1981-

Iran

one
of the Science News 10 scientists to watch in 2019.[103]

Tali
Sharot

 

Israel

 

Carla
J. Shatz

1947–

United
States

Kavli
prize in Neuroscience – 2016.[104]
Ralph W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience-2011

Gordon Shepherd

1933–

 

 

Charles Scott Sherrington

1857–1952

United
Kingdom

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1932.[105]
Sherrington’s First Law, Sherrington’s law of
reciprocal innervation
, Liddell-Sherrington reflex, Sherrington’s First Law, Vulpian-Heidenhain-Sherrington phenomenon

Aafia
Siddiqui

1972–

Pakistan

 

James
A. Simmons

 

 

 

Eero
Simoncelli

 

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 2016.[106]

Phil
Skolnick

1947–

United
States

 

Jens Christian Skou

1918–2018

Denmark

Nobel
Prize in Chemistry – 1997.[107]

P. J. Snow

1948–

Australia

 

Solomon H. Snyder

1938–

United
States

 

Louis
Sokoloff

1921–2015

United
States

 

Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring

1755–1830

Germany

 

Peter
Somogyi

 

Hungary

The
Brain Prize – 2011.[108]

Haim
Sompolinsky

1949–

Denmark

Mathematical
Neuroscience Prize – 2013.[109]

Roger Wolcott Sperry

1913–1994

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1981.[110]

Larry
Squire

1941–

 

 

Karen
Steel

 

United
Kingdom

The
Brain Prize – 2012.[111]

Nicolas
Steno

1638–1686

Denmark

 

Mircea
Steriade

1924–2006

Romania

 

Lina Stern

1878–1968

Russia

 

Thomas C. Südhof

1955–

Germany-United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2013.,[112]
Kavli prize in Neuroscience – 2010.[113]

Nobuo Suga

1933–

Japan

 

Karel Svoboda

1965–

Czech
Republic

The
Brain Prize – 2015.[114]

Dick Swaab

1944–

Netherlands

 

Jan
Swammerdam

1637–1680

Netherlands

 

Franciscus Sylvius

1614–1672

Netherlands

Sylvian
fissure
, Sylvian aqueduct

János Szentágothai

1912–1994

Hungary

 

Joseph
Takahashi

1951–

Japan-United
States

 

David
W. Tank

 

United
States

The
Brain Prize – 2015.[115]

Ichiji
Tasaki

1910–2009

Japan
– United States

 

Jill Bolte Taylor

1959–

United
States

 

Sally
Temple

 

 

 

Johannes
Thome

1967–

 

 

Susumu
Tonegawa

1939–

Japan

 

Giulio
Tononi

 

Italy

 

Anne
Treisman

1935–2018

United
Kingdom

Golden
Brain Award – 1996.[116]

Doris Tsao

1975–

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 2014.[117]

Richard
W. Tsien

1945–

China
– United States

Ralph
W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience-2014

Endel
Tulving

1927–

 

 

Fred
W. Turek

1947–

United
States

 

Robert Turner

1946–

United
Kingdom

 

Leslie Ungerleider

1946–

 

Golden
Brain Award – 2011.[118]

Elliott Valenstein

1923–

United
States

 

Antonio Maria Valsalva

1666–1723

Italy

Valsalva maneuver

Francisco
Varela

1946–2001

Chile

 

Costanzo
Varolio

1543–1575

Italy

Pons Varolii

Andreas
Vesalius

1514–1564

Habsburg Netherlands

 

Jerzy
Vetulani

1936-2017

Poland

Anna-Monika
Prize – 1983.[119]

Félix Vicq-d’Azyr

1748–1794

France

Bundle of Vicq d’Azyr

Arno
Villringer

1958–

Germany

 

Marthe
Vogt

1903–2003

Germany

 

Joshua T. Vogelstein

1981-

United
States

 

Oskar Vogt

1870–1959

Germany

 

Julius Wagner-Jauregg

1857–1940

Austria

 

George
Wald

1906–1997

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1967.[120]

Heinrich Wilhelm
Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz

1836–1921

Germany

 

Augustus Volney Waller

1816–1870

United
Kingdom

Wallerian degeneration

William Grey Walter

1910–1977

United
States – United Kingdom

 

Shih-Chun
Wang

1910–1993

United
States

 

Kevin
Warwick

1954–

United
Kingdom

 

Ernst Heinrich Weber

1795–1878

Germany

Weber–Fechner law

Karl
Wernicke

1848–1905

Germany

Wernicke’s
area
, Wernicke’s aphasia

Carl Friedrich Otto Westphal

1833–1890

Germany

Westphal’s
sign
, Edinger–Westphal nucleus

Victor P. Whittaker

1919–2016

United
Kingdom

 

Robert
Whytt

1714–1766

United
Kingdom

 

Torsten
Wiesel

1924–

Sweden

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 1981.[121]

Samuel Williamson

1939–2005

United
States

 

Thomas
Willis

1621–1675

United
Kingdom

Circle
of Willis

Moshe
Wolman

1914–2009

Israel

 

Daniel
Wolpert

1963–

United
Kingdom

Golden
Brain Award – 2010.[122]

Robert
Wurtz

1936–

United
States

Golden
Brain Award – 1991.[123]

Michael
W. Young

1949–

United
States

Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2017.[124]

E.
Paul Zehr

1968–

Canada

 

Semir Zeki

 

United
Kingdom

Golden
Brain Award – 1985.[125]

Huda
Zoghbi

1955–

Lebanon

Breakthrough
Prize in Life Sciences – 2017.[126]

Yngve
Zotterman

1898–1982

Sweden

 

Charles
Zuker

1957–

Chile